Adenosine triphosphate (ATP)
Roskoski, Robert, Jr. Blue Ridge Institute for Medical Research, Horse Shoe, North Carolina.
Last reviewed:September 2018
Show previous versions
- Substrate-level phosphorylation
- Oxidative phosphorylation
- Biosynthesis reactions
- Enzyme pump
- Muscle metabolism
- Links to Primary Literature
- Additional Readings
A nucleotide, composed of ribose, adenine, and a triphosphate group, that is an important energy compound in metabolism. Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) [Fig. 1] is a vital energy-rich chemical found in all living cells. It has a chemical formula of C10H16N5O13P3 and consists of three subunits—ribose (a 5-carbon sugar), adenine (a nitrogenous base composed of two carbon-nitrogen rings), and a triphosphate group (a chain of three phosphate groups, designated α, β, and γ). The oxidation of carbohydrates, fats (lipids), and proteins provides the chemical energy that is used to synthesize ATP, which then serves as the source of the chemical energy necessary for biosynthesis, ion transport, and muscle contraction. Originally discovered by Karl Lohmann in 1929, the idea that ATP serves as the common currency of energy exchange in all cells (an idea that is a cornerstone of biology) was first described by Fritz Lipmann in 1941. See also: Amino acid metabolism; Biological oxidation; Carbohydrate metabolism; Cell (biology); Cell biology; Energy metabolism; Lipid metabolism; Metabolism; Nucleotide
The content above is only an excerpt.
for your institution. Subscribe
To learn more about subscribing to AccessScience, or to request a no-risk trial of this award-winning scientific reference for your institution, fill in your information and a member of our Sales Team will contact you as soon as possible.
to your librarian. Recommend
Let your librarian know about the award-winning gateway to the most trustworthy and accurate scientific information.
AccessScience provides the most accurate and trustworthy scientific information available.
Recognized as an award-winning gateway to scientific knowledge, AccessScience is an amazing online resource that contains high-quality reference material written specifically for students. Its dedicated editorial team is led by Sagan Award winner John Rennie. Contributors include more than 9000 highly qualified scientists and 39 Nobel Prize winners.
MORE THAN 8500 articles and Research Reviews covering all major scientific disciplines and encompassing the McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Science & Technology and McGraw-Hill Yearbook of Science & Technology
115,000-PLUS definitions from the McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms
3000 biographies of notable scientific figures
MORE THAN 17,000 downloadable images and animations illustrating key topics
ENGAGING VIDEOS highlighting the life and work of award-winning scientists
SUGGESTIONS FOR FURTHER STUDY and additional readings to guide students to deeper understanding and research
LINKS TO CITABLE LITERATURE help students expand their knowledge using primary sources of information