Tilling, Robert I. Branch of Igneous and Geothermal Processes, U.S. Geological Survey, Menlo Park, California.
Last reviewed:July 2019
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- Nature of magmas
- Concentration of volatiles
- Magma temperatures
- Types of volcanic eruptions
- Monitoring active volcanoes
- Seismicity and ground deformation
- Gas emission and other indicators
- Volcanic hazards mitigation
- Volcanic ash and aviation safety
- Impact of explosive volcanism on global climate
- Links to Primary Literature
- Additional Readings
The scientific study of volcanic phenomena, especially the processes, products, and hazards associated with active or potentially active volcanoes. Volcanology focuses on eruptive activity that has occurred within the past 10,000 years of the Earth's history, particularly eruptions during recorded history. Strictly speaking, it emphasizes the surface eruption of magmas and related gases, and the structures, deposits, and other effects produced thereby. Broadly speaking, however, volcanology includes all studies germane to the generation, storage, and transport of magma, because the surface eruption of magma represents the interaction and culmination of diverse physicochemical processes at depth. This article considers the activity of erupting volcanoes and the nature of erupting lavas (Fig. 1). See also: Volcano
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